Prostate cancer prevention: concepts and clinical recommendations
JL Silberstein and JK Parsons
Division of Urologic Oncology, UC San Diego Medical Center, Moores UCSD Comprehensive Cancer Center, VA San Diego
MedicalPrevention is an important strategy for limiting prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Two major types of prevention are primary (reduction of incident cases) and tertiary (inhibition of disease progression and recurrence). Pharmacological and dietary interventions have potential functions in both the primary and tertiary prevention of prostate cancer. Five- reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in both general and higher-risk populations and are currently under study for tertiary prevention in active surveillance and biochemical recurrence patients. Selenium, vitamin E, and vitamin C do not prevent incident prostate cancer in the general population; however, other promising diet-based interventions are currently under study for tertiary prevention. We recommend consideration of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention in (1) asymptomatic men with a PSA PSA screening for early detection of prostate cancer and (2) asymptomatic men with PSA a reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)p3.0 ng ml–1 who are undergoing or anticipate undergoingX2.5 and p potential risks of 5-ARI therapy. Currently, there is neither clinical evidence to support the use of 5-ARIs for tertiary prevention in active surveillance or biochemical recurrence populations, nor micronutrients for prostate cancer prevention of any type.
Center, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA